2022年高考真题——英语(新高考Ⅰ卷) 答案

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2022 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试

英 语

本试卷共 10 页,满分 120 分。考试用时 120 分钟。

注意事项:1. 答卷前,考生务必用黑色字迹钢笔或签字笔将自己的姓名、考生

号、考场号和座位号填写在答题卡上。用 2B 铅笔将试卷类型(A)填涂在答题卡相

应位置上。将条形码横贴在答题卡右上角“条形码粘贴处”。因笔试不考听力,

选择题从第二部分的“阅读”开始,试题序号从“21”开始。

2. 作答选择题时,选出每小题答案后,用 2B 铅笔把答题卡上对应题目选项的

答案信息点涂黑;如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案,答案不能答在

试卷上。

3. 非选择题必须用黑色字迹钢笔或签字笔作答,答案必须写在答题卡各题目指

定区域内相应位置上;如高改动,先划掉原来的答案,然后再写上新的答案;不

准使用铅笔和涂改液,不按以上要求作答的答案无效。

4. 考生必须保持答题卡的整洁:考试结束后,将试卷和符题卡一并交回。

第二部分阅读(共两节,满分 50 分)

第一节(共 15 小题:每小题 2.5 分,满分 37.5 分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中选出最佳选项。

A

Grading Policies for Introduction to Literature

Grading Scale

90-100, A; 80-89, B; 70-79, C; 60-69, D; Below 60, E.

Essays (60%)

Your four major essays will combine to form the main part of the grade for

this course: Essay 1 = 10%; Essay 2 = 15%; Essay 3 = 15%; Essay 4 = 20%.

Group Assignments (30%)

Students will work in groups to complete four assignments (作业) during the

course. All the assignments will be submitted by the assigned date through

Blackboard, our online learning and course management system.

Daily Work/In-Class Writings and Tests/Group Work/Homework (10%)

Class activities will vary from day to day, but students must be ready to

complete short in-class writings or tests drawn directly from assigned readings

or notes from the previous class' lecture/discussion, so it is important to

2022年高考真题——英语(新高考Ⅰ卷) 答案

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take careful notes during class. Additionally, from time to time I will assign

group work to be completed in class or short assignments to be completed at

home, both of which will be graded.

Late Work

An essay not submitted in class on the due date will lose a letter grade

for each class period it is late. If it is not turned in by the 4th day after

the due date, it will earn a zero. Daily assignments not completed during class

will get a zero. Short writings missed as a result of an excused absence will

be accepted.

1. Where is this text probably taken from?

A. A textbook.

B. An exam paper.

C. A course plan.

D. An

academic article.

2. How many parts is a student’s final grade made up of?

A. Two.

B. Three.

C. Four.

D. Five.

3. What will happen if you submit an essay one week after the due date?

A. You will receive a zero.

B. You will lose a letter grade.

C. You will be given a test.

D. You will have to rewrite it.

【答案】 1. C2. B3. A

【解析】

【导语】本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了文学概论课程评分办法。

【1 题详解】

理判断 题。 根据 文章 题“Grading Policies for Introduction to Literature (文学

概论课程评分办法)”和 Essays (60%)部分“Your four major essays will combine to

form the main part of the grade of for this course ( 的四篇 要文章将 构成 本课

程评分的 要部分)” 可知 ,文章介绍了文学概论课程评分办法, 可得 出本文是出自一个课

划。 选 C 项。

【2 题详解】

解题。 根据 题“Essays (60%)”、“Group Assignments (30%)”和“Daily

Work/In-Class Writings and Tests/Groups Work/Homework (10%)” 可知 ,学生的最 终成

绩由 3 部分 组成 选 B 项。

【3 题详解】

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理判断 题。 根据 “Late Work”部分“If it is not turned in by the 4th day after

the due date, it will earn a zero. (如 果没有 截止日期 后的第 4 上交,将 会得到

分)” 可知 ,如 截止日期 后一 周才 交文章, 会得零 分。 选 A 项。

B

Like most of us, I try to be mindful of food that goes to waste. The

arugula ( 芝麻菜 )was to make a nice green salad, rounding out a roast chicken

dinner. But I ended up working late. Then friends called with a dinner

invitation. I stuck the chicken in the freezer. But as days passed, the arugula

went bad. Even worse, I had unthinkingly bought way too much; I could have made

six salads with what I threw out.

In a world where nearly 800 million people a year go hungry, “food waste

goes against the moral grain,” as Elizabeth R oyte writes in this month’s

cover story. It’s jaw-dropping how much perfectly good food is thrown away

from “ugly” (but q uite eatable) vegetables rejected by grocers to large

amounts of uneaten dishes thrown into restaurant garbage cans.

Producing food that no one eats wastes the water, fuel, and other resources

used to grow it. That makes food waste an environmental problem. In fact, R oyte

writes, “if food waste were a country, it would be the third largest producer

of greenhouse gases in the world.”

If that’s hard to understand, let’s keep it as simple as the arugula at

the back of my refrigerator. M ike Curtin sees my arugula story all the time

but for him, it's more like 12 bones of donated strawberries nearing their last

days. Curtin is CE O of DC Central K itchen in Washington, D.C., which recovers

food and turns it into healthy meals. Last year it recovered more than 807,500

pounds of food by taking donations and collecting blemished ( 有瑕疵 的) produce

that otherwise would have rotted in fields. And the strawberries? V olunteers

will wash, cut, and freeze or dry them for use in meals down the road.

Such methods seem obvious ,

yet so often we just don’t think. “Everyone

can play a part in reducing waste, whether by not purchasing more food than

necessary in your weekly shopping or by asking restaurants to not include the

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side dish you won’t eat,” Curtin says.

4. What does the author want to show by telling the arugula story?

A. We pay little attention to food waste.

B. We waste food unintentionally

at times.

C. We waste more vegetables than meat.

D. We have good reasons for

wasting food.

5. What is a conse q uence of food waste according to the test?

A. M oral decline.

B. Environmental harm.

C. Energy shortage.

D. Worldwide starvation.

6. What does Curtin’s company do?

A. It produces kitchen e q uipment.

B. It turns rotten arugula into

clean fuel.

C. It helps local farmers grow fruits.

D. It makes meals out of

unwanted food.

7. What does Curtin suggest people do?

A. Buy only what is needed.

B. R educe food consumption.

C .

Go shopping once a week.

D. Eat in restaurants less

often.

【答案】 4. B5. B6. D7. A

【解析】

【导语】本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了 我们日常 中的 食物浪费现象 及华盛顿 DC 中

厨房 首席执行官科廷为 决食物浪费而采取 力。

【4 题详解】

理判断 题。 根据 第一 中的“Like most of us, I try to be mindful of food that

goes to waste.( 像我们大多数人 我努 那些被浪费 食物 )” “But as days

passed, the arugula went bad. Even worse, I had unthinkingly bought way too

much; could have made six salads with what I threw out.( 但随着 的推 芝麻

菜变坏 了。 更糟糕 的是, 假思索地买 太多东西;我扔 掉的 东西可 做六份沙拉 )”

,作 者想 过讲述芝麻菜 事来 我们有 无意 间浪费食物 选 B。

【5 题详解】

解题。 根据 三段 “Producing food that no one eats wastes the water, fuel,

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and other, resources used to grow it. That makes food waste an environmental

problem. In fact, R oyte writes, “if food waste were a country, it would be the

third largest producer of greenhouse gases in the world.”(生 产没人吃 食物会浪

于种植食物 燃料 和其他 资源 使 得食物浪费成为 一个 环境问 题。事 上, 罗伊

,“如 果食物浪费 是一个国 将是 世界 上第 三大温室气体排放 国。”)” 可知

根据 文中的说法, 浪费食物 的一个后 是对 环境 危害 选 B。

【6 题详解】

解题。 根据倒数 第二 中的“Curtin is CE O of DC Central K itchen in

Washington. D.C., which recovers food and turns it into healthy meals. Last

year it recovered more than 807,500 pounds of food by taking donations and

collecting blemished ( 有瑕疵 的) produce, that otherwise would have rotted in

fields. And the strawberries? V olunteers will wash, cut, and freeze or dry them

for use in meals down the road.( 科廷 华盛顿 DC 中 央厨房 首席执行官 该公司

物复 原, 变成健康 食物 年, 该组织 过接受捐赠 收集有瑕疵 农产品 回了

807500 食物 否则这些农产品就会 地里腐烂 草莓呢?志愿者们 清洗 切割

或干 燥它们 ,以 便 上的 餐食 中使用)” 可知 科廷 公司 人们 要的 食物重

食物 选 D。

【7 题详解】

解题。 根据 最后一 中的““Everyone can play a part in reducing waste,

whether by not purchasing more food than necessary in your weekly shopping or

by asking restaurants to not include the side dish you won’t eat,” Curtin

says.(“每个 人都可 以在 减少浪费方面发挥 作用,无论是在每 购物 中不 购买 不必要的

食物 是要求 餐馆 包括你 配菜 ,” 科廷 说)” 可知 科廷建议人们只买 需要的

西 避免浪费食物 选 A。

C

The elderly residents ( 居民 ) in care homes in London are being given hens

to look after to stop them feeling lonely.

The project was dreamed up by a local charity ( 慈善组织 ) to reduce

loneliness and improve elderly people’s wellbeing, It is also being used to

help patients suffering dementia, a serious illness of the mind. Staff in care

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homes have reported a reduction in the use of medicine where hens are in use.

Among those taking part in the project is 80-year-old R uth X avier. She

said: “I used to keep hens when I was younger and had to prepare their

breakfast each morning before I went to school. ”

“I like the project a lot. I am down there in my wheelchair in the morning

letting the hens out and down there again at night to see they’ve gone to

bed.”

“It’s good to have a different focus. People have been bringing their

children in to see the hens and residents come and sit outside to watch them.

I’m enjoying the creative activities, and it feels great to have done

something useful.”

There are now 700 elderly people looking after hens in 20 care homes in the

N orth East, and the charity has been given financial support to roll it out

countrywide.

Wendy Wilson, extra care manager at 60 Penfold Street, one of the first to

embark on the project, said: “ R esidents really welcome the idea of the project

and the creative sessions. We are looking forward to the benefits and fun the

project can bring to people here.”

Lynn Lewis, director of N otting Hill Pathways, said: “We are happy to be

taking part in the project. It will really help connect our residents through a

shared interest and creative activities.”

8. What is the purpose of the project?

A. To ensure harmony in care homes.

B. To provide part-time jobs for

the aged.

C. To raise money for medical research.

D. To promote the elderly

people’s welfare.

9. How has the project affected R uth X avier?

A. She has learned new life skills.

B. She has gained a sense of

achievement.

C. She has recovered her memory.

D. She has developed a strong

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personality.

10. What do the underlined words “embark on” mean in paragraph 7?

A. Improve.

B. O ppose.

C. Begin.

D.

Evaluate.

11. What can we learn about the project from the last two paragraphs?

A. It is well received.

B. It needs to be more creative.

C. It is highly profitable.

D. It takes ages to see the

results.

【答案】 8. D9. B10. C11. A

【解析】

【分析】本文是一篇说明文。 讲述 减少孤独 ,改 善老 健康状况 的项目。

【8 题详解】

理判断 题。 根据 文章第二 “The project was dreamed up by a local charity ( 慈善

组织 ) to reduce loneliness and improve elderly people’s wellbeing ( 项目 由当

家慈善机构构想 减少孤独 ,改 善老 健康状况 )” 可知 个项目的目的是

幸福 选 D。

【9 题详解】

理判断 题。 根据 文章第 五段 ““It’s good to have a different focus. People have

been bringing their children in to see the hens and residents come and sit

outside to watch them. I’m enjoying the creative activities, and it feels

great to have done something useful.” ( 注点 很好 人们 把自己的 孩子带

看母鸡 居民们也 外面坐着看它们 我喜欢创造性 动, 些有 用的事

觉很好 )” R uth X avier 通 过该 项目 获得 了一 种成就感 选 B。

【10 题详解】

词义猜测 题。 根据 文章 倒数 第二 R esidents really welcome the idea of the

project and the creative sessions. We are looking forward to the benefits and

fun the project can bring to people here. ( 居民们 常欢迎该 项目的 法和 会议

我们期 个项目能给 这里 人们带 处和 乐趣 )”以 线 处前的“one of the first

(第一 一)” 可知 Wendy Wilson 是 程的 一,划 线 处的 C 项:

“Begin (开始)” 选 C。

【11 题详解】

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理判断 题。 根据 文章 倒数 第二 R esidents really welcome the idea of the

project and the creative sessions. We are looking forward to the benefits and

fun the project can bring to people here. ( 居民们 常欢迎该 项目

法和 会议

我们期 个项目能给 这里 人们带 处和 乐趣 )”以 最后一 “Lynn Lewis,

director of N otting Hill Pathways, said: “We are happy to be taking part in

the project. It will really help connect our residents through a shared

interest and creative activities.” (“ 诺丁山 ”的 负责 林恩·刘易斯 说: 我们

参与 个项目。 将通 兴趣 创造性活 真正帮助 我们 居民 联系起

来)” 可知 项目的 反响 很好 选 A。

D

Human speech contains more than 2,000 different sounds, from the common

“m” and “a” to the rare clicks of some southern African languages. But why

are certain sounds more common than others? A ground-breaking, five-year study

shows that diet-related changes in human bite led to new speech sounds that are

now found in half the world’s languages.

M ore than 30 years ago, the scholar Charles Hockett noted that speech

sounds called labiodentals, such as “f” and “v”, were more common in the

languages of societies that ate softer foods. N ow a team of researchers led by

Dami á n Blasi at the U niversity of Z urich, Switzerland, has found how and why

this trend arose.

They discovered that the upper and lower front teeth of ancient human

adults were aligned (对 ), making it hard to produce labiodentals, which are

formed by touching the lower lip to the upper teeth. Later, our jaws changed to

an overbite structure (结 ), making it easier to produce such sounds.

The team showed that this change in bite was connected with the development

of agriculture in the N eolithic period. Food became easier to chew at this

point. The jawbone didn’t have to do as much work and so didn’t grow to be so

large.

Analyses of a language database also confirmed that there was a global

change in the sound of world languages after the N eolithic age, with the use of

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